AN DƯƠNG VƯƠNG (257 BC-179 BC, 78 xyoo)

Hits: 6

     AN DƯƠNG VƯƠNG (257 BC-179 BC, 78 xyoo) yog tus vaj ntxwv thiab tsuas yog tus kav ntawm lub kingdomu Lạc lub nceeg vaj, lub xeev antiquity classical koom rau hauv Liab Hav Dej Muaj Peev XwmCov. Ua tus thawj coj ntawm tus Tribesu Việt pawg neeg, nws tua yeej kawg Hùng huab tais ntawm lub xeev ntawm Văn Lang thiab koom ua ke rau nws cov neeg - hu ua cov Lệc Việt - nrog nws cov neeg the Ệu Việt. Cov neeg Dương Vương tau khiav tawm thiab tua tus kheej tom qab tsov rog nrog Cov rog Nanyue hauv 179 BCE.

Biography

Keeb kwm

       Tnws antecedents ntawm daim duab yog "pos huab”Txij li tsuas cov ntaub ntawv muab los ntawm cov ntawv sau yog nws lub npe, uas zoo nkaus li mus koom nws nrog tus ancient xeev Shu hauv dab tsi yog tam sim no Sichuan, kov yeej los ntawm Qin dynasty hauv 316 BCE.1,2 Qhov no kuj yog tsoos pom ntawm Suav thiab Nyablaj tej keeb kwmCov. Txawm li cas los xij, muaj qee qhov teeb meem txais tos hauv kev lees paub cov kab lis kev cai no.3 Ntau yam keeb kwm xwm yeem suav nrog Cov Ntaub Ntawv Tshaj Tawm Ntawm Qhov Chaw Nyob Sab Nraud ntawm Jiao xeev,4 Đại Việt sử lược, Ệi Việt sử ký toàn thư hais tias nws yog Shu tub huabtais (ms. “王 王 子”, lub ntsiab lus tiag tiag: “tus tub ntawm Shu huab tais“), Tab sis lawv tsis muaj peev xwm piav qhia meej txog nws lub keeb kwm. Tom qab cov kws tshawb fawb keeb kwm muaj qhov pom tau meej meej dua. Hauv Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục, cov kws sau ntawv tau ua xyem xyav txog Huab tais An Dương Vương lub keeb kwm, thov nws yog tsis yooj yim sua rau a Shu tub huabtais mus hla txhiab mais kev deb, hla hav zoov, ntau lub xeev tuaj txeeb chaw Văn Lang.5 Hauv xyoo 1963, qhov ncauj kev lig kev cai ntawm Neeg tày in Raws li siab li lub ntsiab lus "Cẩu chủa cheng vùa”Yog kaw. 1,6 Raws li cov account no, nyob rau tom kawg ntawm Hồng Bàng lub caij nyoog, muaj lub nceeg vaj hu ua Nam Cương (lit. “sab qab teb ciam teb“) Nyob rau niaj hnub Raws li siab li thiab Guangxi.1 Nws muaj 10 thaj av, nyob rau hauv uas tus Vaj Ntxwv nyob hauv hauv nruab nrab ib qho (niaj hnub no Cao Bằng Xeev) .Lub cuaj thaj av ntawd muaj cuaj tug kav tswj.7 thaum Vaj Ntxwv An Dương Vương txiv (Thục Chế 制) tuag, nws tseem yog menyuam yaus; tsis tau, nws txoj kev txawj ntse ua rau nws tuav tau lub zwm txwv thiab txhua tus nom muab nws tso. Nam Cương ua ntau dua thiab muaj zog dua thaum Văn Lang ua neeg tsis muaj zog.1,6 Tsis ntev tom qab ntawd, nws tau ua rau Văn Lang thiab nrhiav tau lub xeev ntawm U LạcCov. Cov lus dab neeg yog txhawb los ntawm ntau tus vestiges, relics thiab qhov chaw npe nyob hauv Cao Bằng XeevCov. Kev xav ntawm nws keeb kwm yog ib tus neeg nyob hauv zos kuj tau xav txog ntau yam dab neeg, sau npe, teev tiam thiab nco lwm tus neeg.

Lub hauv paus ntawm Âu Lạc

      Prior rau qhov Suav muaj los thawj hauv cheeb tsam, qaum teb thiab Yav qaum teb-qaum teb Nyab Laj tau txiav txim los ntawm Lạc vaj (Hùng vaj) uas tau ua haujlwm los ntawm Lạc hầu thiab Lạc tướng.8 Kwv yees li 257 U.Nt.Y., lawv tau koom nrog los ntawm cov Âu Việt xeev Nam Cương, uas nyob rau thaj tsam yav qab teb ntawm Zuo Hav Dej, lub qhov dej txhav dej ntawm Koj Koj Hav Dej thiab cheeb tsam ntws los ntawm Lô Dej, Gâm Dej, Thiab Cầu Dej.9,10 Tus thawj coj ntawm tus Ệu Việt, THỤC PHÁN, rhuav tshem lub xeem Hùng vaj, thiab koom ua ke ob lub nceeg vaj nyob hauv qab ntawm cov npe ntawm U Lạc, tshaj tawm nws tus kheej Huab tais An Dương (Dương Vương).1

Kev tsim kho ntawm Cổ Loa Citadel

     Ktej no AN DƯƠNG tsim lub peev ntawm ạu Lạc in Tây Vu, qhov uas muaj lub tsev ua yeeb yaj kiab ua kom lub tsev, paub rau keeb kwm Cổ Loa.11 Nws yog thawj qhov chaw ua haujlwm ntawm lub Nyab Laj kev vam meej ua ntej Sinitic era,12 nrog rau txheej sab nrauv npog tag nrho 600 hectares,13,14 ib ntawm cov loj tshaj plaws prehistoric kev sib haum xeeb chaw ntawm Southeast Asia.15 Lub npe “Cổ Loa”Yog Sino-Nyablaj nyeem ntawv ntawm 螺 螺 ( Nruab Nrab Suav (ZS) kuoX-luɑ > Txuj Ci Hmoob: Gǔ Luó), lub ntsiab lus “Ancient Conch“. Raws li Ệi Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư, lub cooj ntoo yog zoo li tus conch,16 kev cuam tshuam ntawm citadel qhov kev ncau ntau txheej qauv nrog kev kub siab cov nqaj thiab moats.17

       Tnws cov xwm txheej cuam tshuam nrog kev tsim kho ntawm tus caws pliav zoo li tus kab noj hniav no tau nco txog hauv cov lus dab neeg ntawm tus vaub kib golden. Raws li cov lus dab neeg no, thaum ua lub tuam tsev (citadel) tab tom ua, txhua yam haujlwm ua tiav thaum nruab hnub tsis muaj dab tsi txawv thaum hmo ntuj los ntawm ib pab ntsuj plig nrhiav kev ua pauj rau tus tub ntawm tus vaj ntxwv dhau los.18 Cov ntsuj plig hauv cheeb tsam tau raug coj los ntawm ib txhiab-xyoo-laus dawb qaib perched nyob ze Roob Tam ĐảoCov. Tus huab tais tom qab ntawd hlawv xyab, thov Vajtswv, thiab nqa cov vajtswv los pab nws. Hauv kev teb rau nws qhov kev thov, muaj lub npauj av kub loj ntog tam sim ntawd tawm ntawm dej, nws tau tua qaib dawb, thiab tiv thaiv nws kom txog rau thaum tiav citadel. Thaum nws tawm mus, nws muab ib qho ntawm nws txoj phuam thiab qhia rau tus Vaj Ntxwv kom siv nws los ua ib rab hneev ntawm tus ntoo khaub lig, nrog kev paub tseeb tias nrog nws nws tuaj yeem tsis muaj peev xwm.

       Ktej no IB DƯƠNG cog lus Cao Lỗ (los yog Cao Thông) tsim ib tug hneev thiab christened nws “Neeg dawb huv Hneev Hneev ntawm Supernaturally Luminous Golden Claw"(nỏ thần), qhov ib qho twg yuav tua tau 300 tus txiv neej.8,18 raws li keeb kwm KW Taylor, tus hneev, nrog rau cov lus rau nws, zoo li tau nkag tau rau hauv Tuam Tshoj los ntawm Cov neeg Austroasiatic nyob rau sab qab teb nyob rau lub sijhawm thib peb lossis plaub caug xyoo BCE.18 Nws sai tau dhau los ua ib feem ntawm Suav teb chaws Suav; nws lub tshuab ua kom muaj peev xwm tuaj yeem nrog thev naus siab siab thiab tso tawm tus xub nrog lub zog ntau dua li lwm hom hneev. Ob lub zog tooj liab tau tawm hauv Vietnam; feem ntau cov tswv yim tej zaum tau ua los ntawm xyoob.

Tsov Rog Nrog Nanyue

      In 204 BCE, nyob rau hauv Panyu (tam sim no Guangzhou), ZHAO TUO, a haiv neeg ntawm Zhending,19,20 nyob rau hauv lub xeev Zhao (Niaj hnub no-Hebei), teeb tsa lub lub nceeg vaj ntawm Nanyue.21 TAYLOR (1983) ntseeg lub sijhawm thaum lub sijhawm Nanyue thiab U Lạc co-muaj, U Lạc ib ntus lees paub lub suzerainty ntawm Nanyue, tab sis es tsis hais txog ntawd Nanyue exerted tej tiag tiag cai tshaj lawv, qhov no tsuas yog sawv cev lawv kev sib nrig sib tiv thaiv Han xa kev xavCov. Raws li muaj kev sib raug zoo nrog nws raug rov qab los, Nanyue lub cawv tshaj U Lạc lapsed. Cov tub rog Zhao Tuo tau tsim los tawm tsam qhov nws yog tam sim no muaj rau deploy tiv thaiv cov U Lạc.22

      Tnws cov ntsiab lus ntawm kev sib tw tsis tau muab sau cia. Zhao Tuo's setbacks thaum ntxov thiab qhov kawg yeej tawm tsam Huab tais An Dương tau hais hauv Cov Ntaub Ntawv Tshaj Tawm Ntawm Qhov Chaw Nyob Sab Nraud ntawm Jiao xeev.4 Cov Ntaub Ntawv ntawm Yawg Nom Phaj Keeb Kwm hais tsis yog tus twg Huab tais An Duong tsis Zhao Tuo cov tub rog swb ntawm Âu Lạc; li ntawd tom qab Huab Tais txoj kev tuag Lü tuag (180 BCE), ZHAO TUO siv nws tus kheej cov tub rog ua rau muaj kev kub ntxhov thiab siv kev nplua nuj los xiab lub Minyue, lub Western Ou, Thiab cov Luo rau kev mloog lus.23 Txawm li cas los xij, txoj haujlwm tau tshoov siab txog cov lus dab neeg uas nws lub ntsiab lus yog hloov mus ntawm tus vaub kib caj dab-ua rau tus ntoo khaub lig los ntawm Huab tais An Duong rau Zhao TuoCov. Raws li zaj dab neeg no, cov tswv cuab ntawm tus hneev muab lub hwj chim ua nom ua tswv:Tus uas muaj peev xwm tuav tus hneev no kav txoj cai; tus uas tsis txawj tuav tus hneev no yuav piam sij. "24,25,26

       Unsuccess on the battlefield, ZHAO TUO tau thov kom muaj kev sib tawm tsam thiab xa nws tus tub Zhong Shi ua ntaub ntawv rau Huab tais An Dương ua haujlwm rau nws.27,25 Nyob ntawd, nws thiab Vaj Ntxwv An Duong tus ntxhais, MỴ CHÂU, poob rau hauv kev hlub thiab sib yuav.25,28 Ib lub tsho khuam ntawm lub koom haum matrilocal hais kom tus txiv mus nyob hauv qhov chaw nyob ntawm nws tus pojniam tsev neeg.29 Raws li qhov tshwm sim, lawv tau nyob ntawm Ib lub tsev hais plaub Duong kom txog rau thaum Zhong Shi tswj kom paub lub secrets thiab cov tswv yim ntawm King An Dương.29 Meanwhile, King AN DUONG kho tau Cao Lỗ ua saib tsis taus, thiab nws tau tso nws tseg.30

       ZHONG SHI muaj Mỵ Châu qhia nws txoj kev hneev dawb ceev, thaum kawg nws tau hloov lub txiaj ntsig, nruab nrab nws lub hwj chim tshwj xeeb thiab muab nws tsis tseem ceeb.28 Tom qab ntawd nws hais kom rov qab mus rau nws txiv, leej twg thereupon launched tshiab nres rau U Lạc thiab lub sij hawm no swb lawm Huab tais An Dương.29 Cov keeb kwm sau tseg tias, hauv nws swb, Huab tais tau dhia mus rau hauv dej hiav txwv kom tua tus kheej. Hauv qee cov qauv, nws tau hais los ntawm tus vaub kib txog nws tus ntxhais txoj kev ntxeev siab thiab tua nws tus ntxhais rau nws txoj kev ntxeev siab ua ntej tua nws tus kheej. Ib qho lus dab neeg, txawm li cas los xij, qhia tawm tias ib tus vaub kib golden sawv los ntawm dej thiab coj nws mus rau hauv qhov av tiaj tus.25 Kuj tseem muaj kev coj ua qub kev cai uas Huab tais tau khiav tawm sab qab teb mus txog niaj hnub no Nghệ Ib Lub Xeev, txua lub tuam tsev tshiab thiab txiav txim kom txog thaum nws tuag.31

        From lub archaeological tshawb pom ntawm Cổ Loa, nws yog posible tias tub rog yees los ntawm Tsov Rog Mis Kas tau pauv mus rau thaj av ntawd nrog thaj tsam ntawm cov riam phom uas zoo sib xws rau ib pab tub rog tam sim no hauv Tuam Tshoj, tawm tswv yim hais tias tus hneev supernatural tej zaum yuav yog ib hom ntawm "tshiab qauv tub rog”Kawm thiab cov los ntawm Cao Thông, uas yog “tsis muaj lawm”Tsis muaj nws kev qhia.32

legacy

     Veet Nyab Xeeb cov keeb kwm feem ntau saib cov xwm txheej tseem ceeb ntawm lub caij nyoog no tias muaj keeb kwm qhov tseeb keeb kwm. Txawm li cas los xij kev txhais thiab kev sib nkag siab ntawm keeb kwm ntawm lub sijhawm tau teev nyob rau hauv, thiab qee zaus tawm tsam, tus keeb kwm ntawm Soviet txhais txog keeb kwm.33 cov peev ntawm King An Dương, CỔ LOA, yog thawj thawj lub chaw pabcuam ntawm cov Nyab Laj kev vam meej ua ntej Sinitic era.12 Lub xaib muaj ob txheej txheej sab hauv ntawm lub chaw thawb thiab ib lub citadel rau sab hauv, ntawm cov duab puab. Lub moats muaj ib co kab ntws, suav nrog Hoang Giang Dej thiab lub network ntawm cov pas dej uas tau muab Cổ Loa nrog kev tiv thaiv thiab kev xaib.34 Kim kwv yees li cov neeg ntawm Co Loa tej zaum muaj los ntawm 5,000 mus rau ib ncig 10,000 inhabitants.35

References

  1. TAYLOR 1983, p. 19.
  2. TERRY F. KLEEMAN 1998, p. 24.
  3. O'HARROW 1979, p. 148.
  4. Raws li hais hauv Li Daoyuan Cov Lus Tawm Tsam nyob rau hauv cov Dej Classic, Vol. 37
  5. Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục (定欽 定 史 鑑 鑑 目 目)
  6. O DUY ANH 2016, p. 30. XNUMX.
  7. O DUY ANH 2016, p. 29. XNUMX.
  8. KELLEY 2014, p. 88.
  9. O DUY ANH 2016, p. 31. XNUMX.
  10. DEMATTÈ 2015, p. 622-624.
  11. TAYLOR 2013, p. 14.
  12. MIKSIC & YIAN 2016, p. 111.
  13. MIKSIC & YIAN 2016, p. 156.
  14. KIM, LAI & TRINH 2010, p. 1013.
  15. KIM 2020, p. 231.
  16. NGÔ SĨ LIÊN li al., Ệi Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư "Dương Vương””:Tus Vaj Ntxwv ntawd tsa ib lub tsev rau ntawm Việt Thường, ib txhiab-zhàng dav, nplawm thiab viav vias zoo li tus duab ntoo uas luag tsuj. Yog li ntawd, nws tau hu ua Conch Citadel. "
  17. KIERNAN, BEN (2017). Việt Nam: keeb kwm txij puag thaum ub los txog rau tam sim noCov. Oxford University Xovxwm. p. 34.
  18. TAYLOR 1983, p. 21.
  19. WATSON 1961, p. 239.
  20. YU 1986, pp. 451–452.
  21. LOEWE 1986, p. 128.
  22. TAYLOR 1983, p. 24.
  23. WATSON 1961, p. 241.
  24. NAM C. KIM 2015, p. 5.
  25. TAYLOR 1983, p. 25.
  26. GEORGE E. DUTTON 2006, p. 70.
  27. LEEMING 2001, p. Xyoo 193.
  28. KELLEY 2014, p. 89.
  29. TAYLOR 2013, p. 15.
  30. TAYLOR 2013, p. 16.
  31. TAYLOR 1983, p. 317.
  32. TAYLOR 2013, sab 16-17.
  33. PATRICIA M. PELLEY - Postcolonial Nyab Laj: Cov Keeb Kwm Tshiab Ntawm Lub Tebchaws Yav Tas Los - Nplooj ntawv 50 2002 “leej twg ntseeg ntau dua rau kev ua haujlwm ntawm Lenin - feem ntau tshwj xeeb tshaj yog Trần Quốc Vượng, Hà Văn Tấn, thiab Phan Huy L published - luam tawm ob txoj kev tshawb fawb txog kev tshawb fawb, Primitive Communism thiab Cov Keeb Kwm ntawm Feudalism, los ntawm cov uas lawv tau tsim kev rho tawm… tswv yim qub thaum ntxov mus rau feudalism. Kev tshoov siab los ntawm Lenin cov lus hais ntsig txog lub teb chaws Slavic, cov neeg paub txog keeb kwm ntawm lub tsev kawm ntawv tau hais tias pib nrog H kingsng vaj thiab lub tebchaws V …n Lang ... thaum lub sijhawm kav ntawm An Dương Vương, uas tau kav lub tebchaws Âu Lạc, thiab dhau los ntawm lub sijhawm Suav txoj haujlwm (los ntawm 2879 BC mus rau 43 AD, los ntawm lwm cov lus) Nyablaj haiv neeg yog ua raws kev ywj pheej thaum ub "
  34. SIAB PHAJ 1996, p. 122.
  35. KIM 2015, p. 219-220.

chaw

  1. BALDANZA, KATHLENE (2016). Ming Tuam Tshoj thiab Nyab Laj: Txuas Kev Cog Lus hauv Tebchaws Asia Niaj HnubCov. Cambridge University Xovxwm. ISBN 978-1-316-44055-1.
  2. BRINDLEY, ERICA (2015). Ancient Suav Teb thiab Yue: Nkag siab thiab yam ntxwv ntawm tus ciam teb yav qab teb, C.400 BCE-50 CE. Cambridge University Xovxwm. ISBN 978-110-70847-8-0.
  3. BUTTINGER, JOSEPH (1958). Tus Me Zaj Me: Keeb Kwm Nom Phaj ntawm Nyab LajCov. Cov Kws Tshaj Lij Tshajawm.
  4. CHAPUIS, OSCAR (1995). Keeb Kwm Ntawm Nyab Laj Tebchaws Nyab Laj: Los Ntawm Hong Bang mus rau Tu DucCov. Ntsuab Ntsuab Xov Xwm. ISBN 03132-9-622-7.
  5. DEMATTÈ, PAOLA (Lub Rau Hli 2015). “Taug kev thiab toj roob hauv pes: Zuo River Valley pob zeb kos duab ntawm Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Suav“. Antiquity. 89 (345): 613–628. doi: 10.15184 / aqy.2014.49.
  6. DE VOS, GEORGE A .; SLOTE, WALTER H., eds. (1998). Kev tseeg thiab ntawm tsev neegCov. Xeev University of New York Xovxwm. ISBN 978-0-791-43735-3.
  7. KHWV NYIAJ E. DUTTON (2006). Tus Tay Son Sawv Rov Los: Lub Koom Haum thiab Kev Tawm Tsam Rov Qab Los nyob rau ntawm Yim-yim-xeem Nyab-lajCov. University of Hawaii Xovxwm. ISBN 978-0-82482-984-1.
  8. LUS TEB, HOM PHIAJ; TUS TXIV, JAYNE; WHITMORE, JOHN K., eds. (2012). Qhov chaw ntawm haiv neeg Nyab Laj. Qhia rau haiv neeg EsxiasCov. Columbia University Xovxwm. ISBN 978-0-231-13862-8.
  9. O DUY ANH (2016) [Thawj zaug luam tawm xyoo 1964]. Quat nước Việt Nam qua các đời: nghiên cứu địa lý học lịch sử Việt Nam (nyob nyab laj)). Nha Nam. ISBN 978-604-94-8700-2.
  10. O DUY ANH (2020) [Thawj zaug luam tawm xyoo 1958]. Lịch sử Việt Nam: Từ nguồn gốc ốn cốối thế kỷ XIX (nyob nyab laj)). Cov Kev Luam Ntawv Hanoi. ISBN 978-604-556-114-0.
  11. FERLUS, MICHAEL (2009). “Txheej ntawm Dongsonian Cov Lus hauv Nyab Laj“. Phau Ntawv Xov Xwm ntawm Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. 1: 95–108.
  12. HOÀNG, ANH TUẤN (2007). Txhob lo lo ntxhuav rau Nyiaj: Dutch-Nyab Laj Rerlations ; 1637 - 1700. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-15601-2.
  13. HIGHAM, CHARLES (1989). Cov archaeology ntawm lub teb chaws Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Xovxwm.
  14. HIGHAM, CHARLES (1996). Cov Hnub nyoog Bronze ntawm Southeast AsiaCov. Cambridge University Xovxwm. ISBN 0-521-56505-7.
  15. KELLEY, LIAM C. (2014), “Tsim Cov Lus Qhia Hauv Ib Cheeb Tsam: Cov Dab, Cov Npau Suav, thiab Cov Lus Qhia Hauv Nruab Nrab Medieval Red River Delta“, Hauv ANDERSON, JAMES A .; WHITMORE, JOHN K. (eds.), Tuam Tshoj Lub Chaw Sib Koom rau Thaj Tsam Sab Qab Teb thiab Sab Qab Teb Sab Hnub Poob: Rov Ua Haujlwm Fiery Frontier Tshaj Ob Millennia, Tebchaws Asmeskas: Brills, pp. 78–106
  16. KIERNAN, BEN (2019). Việt Nam: keeb kwm txij puag thaum ub los txog rau tam sim noCov. Oxford University Xovxwm. ISBN 978-0-190-05379-6.
  17. KIM, NAM C .; LAI, VAN TOI; TRINH, HOANG HIEP (2010). “Co Loa: kev tshawb xyuas txog Nyab Laj cov peev txheej thaum ub“. Antiquity. 84 (326): 1011–1027. doi: 10.1017 / S0003598X00067041. S2CID 162065918.
  18. KIM, NAM C. (2015). Cov keeb kwm puag thaum ub ntawm Nyab Laj TebCov. Oxford University Xovxwm. ISBN 978-0-199-98089-5.
  19. KIM, NAM C. (2020), “Txoj hauv kev kom tau txais Kev Koom Tes Ua Ntej thiab Lub Xeev Muaj Zog: Pom los ntawm Asia“, Hauv BONDARENKO, DMITRI M .; KOWALEWSKI, STEPHEN A .; ME, DAVID B. (eds.), Cov Evolution ntawm Social InstitutionsCov. Kev Tshaj Tawm Txheej Txheem Thoob Ntiaj Teb thiab Kev Tsim Kho Thoob Ntiaj Teb, Springer Publishing, pp. 225–253, doi: 10.1007 / 978-3-030-51437-2_10, ISBN 978-3-030-51436-5
  20. LEEMING, DAVID (2001). Lus Txhais ntawm Asian MythologyCov. Oxford University Xovxwm. ISBN 9780195120523.
  21. LI, TANA (2011), “Ib qho Geopolitical Txheej txheem cej luam“, Hauv LI, TANA; ANDERSON, JAMES A. (eds.), Lub Tongking Gulf Los Ntawm Keeb Kwm, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Xovxwm, p. 1-25
  22. LI, TANA (2011), “Jiaozhi (Giao Chỉ) hauv Han Lub Sijhawm Kev Txwv Tongking Gulf“, Hauv LI, TANA; ANDERSON, JAMES A. (eds.), Lub Tongking Gulf Los Ntawm Keeb Kwm, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Xovxwm, p. 39–53, ISBN 978-0-812-20502-2
  23. LOEWE, MICHAEL (1986), “Tus qub Han dynasty“, Hauv TWITCHETT, DENIS C .; FAIRBANK, JOHN KING (eds.), Lub Cambridge Keeb Kwm ntawm Tuam Tshoj: Ntim 1, Lub Ch'in thiab Han Empires, 221 BC-AD 220, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 110–128
  24. MCLEOD, LAG LUAM; NGUYEN, THI DIEU (2001). Kev lis kev cai thiab cov kev coj ntawm Nyab LajCov. Greenwood (luam tawm Lub Rau Hli 30, 2001). ISBN 978-0-313-36113-5.
  25. MIKSIC, JOHN NORMAN; YIAN, GO GEOK (2016). Txheej thaum ub Southeast AsiaCov. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-27903-7.
  26. MILBURN, OLIVIA (2010). Lub Hwjchim ci ntsa iab ntawm Yue: Ib qho Lus Txhais ntawm Yuejue shuCov. Sinica Leidensia. 93. Cov Ntawv Cuam Tshua. ISBN 978-90474-4-399-5.
  27. O'HARROW, STEPHEN (1979). “Los Ntawm Co-loa mus rau Trung Tus viv ncaus Cov Tsho Tawm: Viet-Nam Raws Li Cov Neeg Suav Pom Nws“. Neeg Nyab Laj Muab Kev Npam. 22 (2): 140–164. JSTOR 42928006 - ntawm JSTOR.
  28. JAMIESON, NEIL L. (1995). Nkag siab txog Nyab LajCov. Lub Xeev California Cov Xovxwm. ISBN 9780520201576.
  29. SARDESAI, DR (2005). Nyab Laj, Yav Tag Los Thiab Tam Sim NoCov. Avalon Luam tawm. ISBN 978-0-813-34308-2.
  30. SCHAFER, EDWARD HETZEL (1967), Vermilion Noog: T'ang Dluab ntawm Sab Qab Teb, Los Angeles: University of California Xovxwm
  31. TAYLOR, KEITH WELLER (1983). Kev Yug Los Ntawm Tebchaws Nyab LajCov. Lub Xeev California Cov Xovxwm. ISBN 978-0-520-07417-0.
  32. TAYLOR, KEITH WELLER (2013). Keeb Kwm ntawm Nyab Laj Nyab LajCov. Cambridge University Xovxwm. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
  33. TERRY F. KLEEMAN (1998). Ta Chʻeng, Cov Lus Qhia Zoo Tshaj Plaws - Kev ntseeg thiab haiv neeg hauv tebchaws Suav Millennial KingdomCov. University of Hawaii Xovxwm. ISBN 0-8248-1800-8.
  34. WATSON, BURTON (1961). Cov Ntaub Ntawv Ntawm Lub Tebchaws Keeb Kwm Ntawm SuavCov. Columbia University Xovxwm.
  35. WU, CHUNMING; ROLETT, BARRY VLADIMIR (2019). Prehistoric Maritime Ua Si thiab Seafaring hauv East AsiaCov. Caij nplooj ntoos hlav Singapore. ISBN 978-9813292567.
  36. YU, YING-SHIH (1986), “Han kev sib raug zoo txawv teb chaws“, Hauv TWITCHETT, DENIS C .; FAIRBANK, JOHN KING (eds.), Lub Cambridge Keeb Kwm ntawm Tuam Tshoj: Ntim 1, Lub Ch'in thiab Han Empires, 221 BC-AD 220, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 377–463.

LUS CIM :
Qhov chaw:  wikipedia.com.
◊ Cov ntawv qhia lub ntsiab, cov ntawv sau me, cov ntawv loj, cov ntawv sau kom ntxaws, cov duab hauv sepia tau teeb tsa ntawm Ban Tu Thư - thanhdiavietnamhoc.com

NTUJ TU TU THƯ
6 / 2021

(Xyuas 294 lub sij hawm, 3 mus ntsib niaj hnub no)
en English
X