Lub tebchaws VAN LANG (2879 BC - 258 BC, 2621 xyoo)

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P. HUV1 & M. DURAND2

        ONce siab Phong Châu, tsib caug tus tub ntawm Ơu Cơ3 xaiv lawv cov tij laug tus huab tais ntawm lub Hùng Muam Ntxawg.

        Tkaus mom yog thawj huab tais Hùng uas reigned tshaj Văn Lang, thawj viet tebchaws lub tebchaws. Tus Văn Lang, nrog nws cov ciam teb tsis paub meej tias ncua ntev ntawm Vietnam mus rau lub Xiav xiav4, yog tsis paub los thaum ub Kev ncig tebchaws SuavCov. Yog li, HENRI MASPERO5 tau kwv yees hais tias tus Văn Lang of nyab laj keeb kwm, yog tsuas yog lub qub nceeg vaj ntawm Ye-lang (Dạ Lang), nyob rau sab qab teb ntawm Tong-T'ing pas dej uas lub npe tau mob-nyeem thiab wrongly recopied los ntawm Tang Suav keeb kwm uas tau kis lawv, yuam kev rau lawv nyab laj cov npoj yaigCov. Qhov tseeb, lub cim Ye (Dạ) yuav tau raug wrongly rov Wen (Văn) thiab yog vim li cas thiaj muaj kev tsis sib haum xeeb nyob nruab nrab Ye-Lang thiab Wen-LangCov. Muaj los, los ntawm txoj kev them nyiaj, a Văn Lang nyob txuas ntxiv hauv Qab Teb, ntawm cov septentrional ntawm cov neeg tiam tam sim no Nyab Laj Nrab Nyab Laj; puas yog Văn-Lang uas tus sau phau ntawv tau tsis meej pem nrog lub Ye-lang thiab xav hais tias ob lub nceeg vaj no tau koom ua ib qho.

      VLangn Lang, thawj nyab laj teb chaws, yuav tsum muaj ib thaj chaw muaj ntau npaum li ceev dua tshaj ntawm lub Xub XubCov. Cov npe ntawm cov cheeb tsam feem ntau muab los ntawm ntau cov keeb kwm thiab keeb kwm tsis suav nrog ib thaj chaw uas muaj feem rau Tong-T'ing pas dej6Cov. Kaum ob lub nroog tsis dhau mus Kouang-si thiab Kouang-tong nyob rau sab qaum teb.

     The Văn Lang muaj lub neej ntev heev. Il tau kis ntawm Hùng Vaj los ntawm lub sijhawm qub rau 257 BC, hnub ntawm nws annexion los ntawm Dương Vương7, ib tug tub huabtais ntawm Pa-Chou (Ba Thục).

      Tnws cov ntaub ntawv peb tuaj yeem sib sau ua ke Văn Lang koom haum kev nom kev tswv thiab kev ua neej yog muab rho tawm Ntawv Suav Hmoob, tsis yog anterior rau 4th xyoo pua ntawm peb era, thiab los ntawm Ntawv Nyab Laj ntau npaum li cas tsis ntev los no (14th xyoo pua) tab sis piav tau qhov tseeb txheej thaum ub thiab kev ntseeg.

       Tnws tsis yooj yim ntawm kev sau ib daim ntawv qhia txog lub nceeg vaj no lub neej nyob rau hauv kev nyuaj los kho ntu lus, lossis txawm tias ntu ntawm ntu dhau los uas nws yuav siv tau. Tus Hùng dynasty tej zaum reigned lub sijhawm yuav luag ib txhiab xyoo, yog tias peb lees qhov nruab nrab ntawm tsib caug xyoo rau txhua txoj kev kav; thaum lub ntsiab saib nyob rau Văn Lang lub neej muaj nyob hauv ob peb cov ntawv nyeem uas tawg thiab qee tus legends uas txoj kev tshawb fawb tseem ceeb tau pib los ntawm HENRY MASPERO. Nyob rau 18 Hùng vaj suav los ntawm kev lig kev cai, peb muaj ob peb heev onomastical thiab raws caij nyoog laij.

      Any cov lus qhia dav dav yuav muaj cov kev taug, tshwm sim, piv txwv, rau xyoo 1000 BC, lossis 300 BC. Dhau li ntawm, qhov xwm txheej ntau ntawm cov sijhawm ntawd yuav zwm rau epochs posterior mus Văn Lang lub nceeg vaj thiab tej zaum yuav muaj pauv ntawm nws los ntawm sau phau ntawv nyab laj ntawm 14th thiab 15th centuries.

      The Văn-Lang lub nceeg vaj, yog ib tug ntseeg hauv ntawv, yog lub xeev feudal, hierarchically tseg tab sis decentralized. Nws tau muab tso rau hauv qab aulorily ntawm a Hùng (ua siab loj) lossis (Lạc) huab tais leej twg xub tau raug xaiv los ua nws lub siab tawv thiab kev kub siab. Qhov ntawd ua ntej Hùng huab tais reigned ntawm Phong Châu8, ib qho chaw nyob hauv niaj hnub no Bạch HạcCov. Nws yog tus tub hlob ntawm Lạc Long Quân, cov txwv zeej txwv koob cov Hiab Yue (Việt) ie tam sim no-hnub Nyab laj, leej twg tseem yog tus neeg saib xyuas ntawm thawj tus poj koob yawg koob. Thawj Hùng huab tais faib cov Văn Lang chaw uas zoo heev rau cov cheeb tsam confided rau nws cov kwv tij uas tej zaum lub Lạc Marquis (Lạc Hầu lossis tus thawj tub qhe).

       Those cov cheeb tsam lawv tus kheej tau muab faib ua cov ntawv sau tseg rau tus huab tais cov kwv tij lossis cov neeg hauv tsev neeg muaj koob muaj npe (Lạc Tướng Los sis tus thawj tub rog)). Cov liaj ia tebchaws uas muaj cov tswv li no tau hu ua Lạc Điền.

       PTsoomfwv txoj haujlwm xws li huab tais, marquis, feem ntau (lossis cov thawjcoj) zoo li muaj caj ces. Txiv neej cov me nyuam ntawm tus huab tais muaj cov npe ntawm Xeem-Lang thiab poj niam hu ua Mệ Nàng or Mỵ Nương9Cov. Cov tib neeg tau muab piv tias cov koom haum ua kas moos rau cov kab ke feudal uas tseem muaj ntawm cov txiv qaub tam sim no hauv cov cheeb tsam nruab nrab thiab cov cheeb tsam siab ntawm North Nyab Laj, tshwj xeeb, Mường10 uas tseem muaj qhov xwm txheej ntawm heredirary chiefs, sib koom nruab nrab ntawm lawv tus kheej los ntawm kev sib khi ntawm kev vassality thiab kev tswj hwm. Cov neeg nyob hauv Văn Lang tau mus txog ib qib ntawm kev vam meej. Inheriting cov cuab yeej ntawm lawv Xub Xub pog koob yawg koob, lawv tau txhim kho lawv thiab txawm pib tsim dua tshiab. Lawv yog cov tswv lawv siv hluav taws los tua cov av, thiab txhaws los laij. Lawv tom qab ntawd tuaj xyaum txiav thiab hlawv qaij; lawv sowed thiab sau cov nplaum thiab tsis-slicky mov (Saib cov lus dab neeg ntawm Bánh Chưng)). Lawv, thawj zaug ua lawv cov mov nyob rau hauv cov raj xyoob, tom qab ntawd tuaj siv cov av me me thiab cov lauj kaub hauv av. Lawv paub txog tooj dag. Lawv kuj yog neeg txawj ntses thiab ua tub sab. Lawv piav thiab pleev xim rau ntawm lawv lub cev duab ntawm zaj (khej lossis voom tsiaj), cov nab thiab lwm yam tsiaj hauv dej kom paub tseeb tias lawv tus kheej muaj kev tiv thaiv zoo tiv thaiv cov tsiaj uas lawv ntshai tsam muaj kev tawm tsam. Nrog tib lub hom phiaj, lawv tau kos rau lawv lub nkoj thiab cov hlab ntsha ntau lub taub hau thiab lub qhov muag ntawm dej dab. Lawv cov tsoos tsho thaum xub thawj tau ua los ntawm cov nroj tsuag ua ke. Lawv kuj hnav cov mats thiab. Lawv lub tsev tau ua tiav siab ntawm stills kom tsis txhob muaj txhua qhov kev tawm tsam ntawm cov tsiaj qus. Lawv ris, raws li qhov tseeb Ntawv Suav Hmoob, cov plaub hau ntev hauv chignon txhawb nqa los ntawm txoj phuam. Raws li cov lus dab neeg hais txog tus poj niam, lawv tau hais, luv luv cov plaub mos thiaj li “pab txhawb lawv txoj kev mus kev hauv roob hav“. Lawv siv cov isca-ceev thiab tawg. Qhov blackening ntawm cov hniav tsis yog qhia meej meej hauv cov lus dab neeg ntawm betel thiab areca-nul ntoo lossis cov lus dab neeg ntawm Cao (Cau) tsev neeg, tab sis cov kws tshawb fawb coob leej neeg hauv tebchaws plooj rov qab rau lub sijhawm puag thaum ub. Lawv yuav tsum tau totem cov neeg pe hawm thiab coj tib neeg kev txi uas tau ua kom ntev mus txog thaum 10th xyoo pua ntawm peb lub caij nyoog, thiab cov kev coj ua yuav tau raug kev ntxub ntxaug los ntawm Huab tais Đinh Tiên Hoàng11Cov. Kev sib yuav ntawm lawv zoo li tau muaj kev ywj pheej zoo thiab tau ua nyob rau hauv lub caij nyoog txwv. Betel thiab areca-cov noob txiv ua si lub luag haujlwm zoo hauv betrothal. Kev ua tshoob ua kos muaj kev txi thiab ib qho kev noj mov ua ntej nws tau noj.

       If ib ntseeg lub neej nyob Nyab Laj cov lus ceeb toom, thaum lub caij ntawm Hùng vaj thiab tej zaum ntawm qhov kawg ntawm lawv cov neeg muaj koob muaj npe, kev tsis ncaj ncees kev sib raug zoo tau tsim nrog Occident los yog ntau yooj yim nrog lub Hiav txwv qab teb. cov Lus dab neeg ntawm dej Melon zoo li yuav ua tim khawv tuaj txog hauv Vietnam ntawm neeg txawv teb chaws ntawm ib haiv neeg sib txawv uas yuav tau import cov noob, thiab qhov no tej zaum los ntawm hiav txwv (3rd xyoo pua BC.?).

ua tim khawv :
1: HUAB TAIS HI (16 Lub kaum hli ntuj 1901, Bosnia - 28 Plaub Hlis 1983) yog tus kws kho mob Fabkis (kws phais mob thiab anatomist), keeb kwm tshuaj thiab kws kho mob, ntev nyob rau hauv post hauv Indochina, tus thawj saib xyuas ntawm ntau lub kws kho mob (Hanoï, Paris), tus tswj hwm lub Cov Tsev Kawm Ntawv Félix Houphouët-Boigny, ib tug tho kev hauv keeb kwm tshuaj. (Saib txhua yam ntsiab lusP. HUV)

2: MAURICE DURAND yog ib tug neeg Fabkis hom lus Fab Kis yug hauv Hanoi. (Saib txhua yam ntsiab lusM. DURAND)

3: ÂU CƠ (嫗 姬) yog, raws li cov lus dab neeg creation ntawm lub Hmoob nyab laj, ib tug tsis txawj tuag lub roob uas sib yuav Lạc Long Quân ("Zaj Tswv Ntuj Lac“), Thiab kwv ib lub hnab qe uas daug ib puas tus menyuam yaus paub yam lawv tus kheej ua Bách Việt, pog koob yawg koob rau lub Hmoob nyab laj. (Saib txhua yam ntsiab lusau co)

4Xiav xiav: txhais tau tias Yangtze Dej, qee zaum hu ua cov Xiav Dej hauv cov ntawv Askiv qub. Tus Yangtze or Yangzi (English: / ˈJæŋtsi / lossis / ˈjɑːŋtsi /) yog tus dej ntev tshaj plaws (6,300 km # 3,900 mi) nyob rau hauv Asia, qhov peb-ntev tshaj plaws nyob hauv lub ntiaj teb thiab ntev tshaj plaws nyob hauv lub ntiaj teb kom ntws puv hauv ib lub teb chaws. Nws sawv ntawm tus kheej Jari Toj nyob rau hauv lub Toj Siab Tanggula (Nkauj Hmoob Toj Siab) thiab ntws mus rau 6,300 km (3,900 mi) hauv ib qhov kev yooj yim rau thaj tsam ntawm Suav Hiav Txwv East. Nws yog qhov thib rau-tus dej loj tshaj plaws los ntawm qhov tawm hauv lub ntiaj teb.

5: HENRI PAUL GASTON MASPERO (15/12/1883, Paris - 17/3/1945, Buchenwald concentration camp, Nazi Lub Tebchaws Yelemees) yog tus kws lij choj ntawm Fabkis thiab kws lij choj uas tau pab txhawb ntau lub ncauj lus ntsig txog East Asia. (Saib txhua yam ntsiab lus: HENRI PAUL GASTON MASPERO) (Saib cov lus qhia txhua: HENRI MASPERO)

6Tong-T'ing pas dej or Lub pas dej Dongting (Suav: 庭 庭 湖) yog lub pas dej loj, ntiav nyob rau sab qaum teb Xeev Hunan, Suav. 

7: AN DƯƠNG VƯƠNG yog tus vaj ntxwv thiab tsuas kav ntawm lub kingdomu Lạc lub nceeg vaj, lub xeev antiquity classical koom rau hauv Liab Hav Dej Muaj Peev XwmCov. Ua tus thawj coj ntawm tus Tribesu Việt pawg neeg, nws tua yeej kawg Hùng huab tais ntawm lub xeev ntawm Văn Lang thiab koom ua ke rau nws cov neeg - hu ua cov Lệc Việt - nrog nws cov neeg the Ệu Việt. Cov neeg Dương Vương tau khiav tawm thiab tua tus kheej tom qab tsov rog nrog Cov rog Nanyue xyoo 179 U.Nt.Y. (Saib cov lus qhia txhua: AN DƯƠNG VƯƠNG)

8:   Phong Châu (州 州, Bạch Hạc Cheeb Tsam, Việt Trì, Phú Thọ Xeev hnub no) yog tus peev nroog ntawm Văn Lang (tam sim no Viet Nam) rau feem ntau ntawm lub Hồng Bàng lub sijhawm,1 los ntawm lub Peb Tus Huab Tais mus rau lub Xyoo Thib Ib puas xyoo of Hùng vaj.

9Mỵ Nương (suav: 媚 娘 lossis 媚 嬝) yog cov npe uas siv thaum lub Lub sijhawm Hong Bang hais rau tus ntxhais ntawm lub Tsua vajCov. (Saib cov lus qhia txhua: MỴ NƯƠNG)

10: Tus Mường (Nyab Laj: Người Mường) lossis cov Mwai yog ib pawg haiv neeg ib txwm nyob Nyab Laj qaum teb. cov Muong yog lub teb chaws tus thib peb ntawm 53 pawg neeg tsawg, nrog kwv yees li ntawm 1.45 lab (raws li kev suav pej xeem 2019). Cov Muong neeg qhov chaw nyob lub roob ntawm Nyab Laj qaum teb, feeb meej nyob rau hauv Hòa Bình xeev thiab lub roob roob ntawm Thanh Hóa XeevCov. Lawv muaj feem ntau cuam tshuam nrog cov haiv neeg nyab laj (Kinh)). (Saib cov lus qhia txhua: MƯỜNG)

11: ĐINH BỘ LĨNH (924–979) (r. 968–979), npe hu ua Đinh Hoàn (桓 桓 1), yog thawj tug Hmoob huab tais tom qab kev ywj pheej ntawm lub teb chaws los ntawm txoj cai ntawm tus Suav Yav Qab Teb Han Dynasty, kuj yog tus tsim ntawm lub luv-nyob Dyninh Dynasty thiab ib daim duab tseem ceeb hauv kev tsim ntawm Hmoob muaj kev ywj pheej thiab kev coj noj coj ua hauv 10 xyoo pua. (Saib cov lus qhia txhua:  ĐINH TIÊN HOÀNG)

LUS CIM :
Qhov chaw:  Connaissance du Nyablaj teb - P. HUARD. Cov nom Has, 1954.
◊ Duab:  wikipedia.com.
◊ 
Cov ntawv sau npe, cov ntawv sau me, cov ntawv loj, cov ntawv sau kom ntxaws, muaj cov duab sepia tshwj xeeb tau raug teeb tsa los ntawm Ban Tu Thư - thanhdiavietnamhoc.com

NTUJ TU TU THƯ
6 / 2021

(Xyuas 230 lub sij hawm, 6 mus ntsib niaj hnub no)
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